During flanging process, the workblank margin usually is not deformation zone because it is restricted by blank holder force and the ratio between the width of the margin and bore diameter is pretty large. The deformed wall serves as force transferring area. The bottom with hole is deformation zone, which is driven by two-directional tensile stress (tensile stress along thickness direction is negligible). Deformation zone will become thinner under the effect of tensile stress, which belongs to the same principle of bulging
For stub end with non-circular inner bore, strain and stress distribution of deformation zone is uneven along the flanging line. With the same flanging height, the part with smaller radius of curvature has larger tangential stress and tangential deformation, while the part with larger radius has smaller tangential stress and tangential deformation.
SCH10, SCH20, SCH30, STD, SCH40, SCH60, XS, SCH80, SCH100, SCH120, SCH140, SCH160, XXS, SCH5S, SCH20S, SCH40S, SCH80S. The largest thickness reaches 200mm.
ASME B16.9-2007, ASME B16.25-2007
MSS SP 43-2008
BS1640-1-1962, BS1640-2-1962, BS1640-3-1968, BS1640-4-1968
AFNOR NF A 49-170-1-1999, AFNOR NF A 49-170-2-2009, AFNOR NF A 49-170-3-2009, AFNOR NF A 49-170-4-2009
Carbon steel: ASTM/ASME A234 WPB-WPC
Alloy steel: ASTM/ASME A234 WP 1-WP 12-WP 11-WP 22-WP 5-WP 91-WP 911
Stainless steel: ASTM/ASME A403 WP 304-304L-304H-304LN-304N ASTM/ASME A403 WP 316-316L-316H-316LN-316N-316Ti ASTM/ASME A403 WP 321-321H ASTM/ASME A403 WP 347-347H
Low-temperature steel: ASTM/ASME A402 WPL 3-WPL 6
High-performance steel: ASTM/ASME A860 WPHY 42-46-52-60-65-70
Bending --- Extruding --- Pushing --- Mould Pressing --- Cold Machining or Hot Forming
The product is widely used in many areas such as power generation plant, petroleum industry, natural gas system, chemical industry, shipbuilding industry, heating system, paper-making industry, metallurgy industry, etc.